Its use as a mind-altering drug has been documented by archaeological finds in prehistoric societies in Eurasia and Africa. 440 BCE) Histories records, "The Scythians, as I said, take some of this hemp-seed [presumably, flowers], and, creeping under the felt coverings, throw it upon the red-hot stones; immediately it smokes, and gives out such a vapour as no Grecian vapour-bath can exceed; the Scyths, delighted, shout for joy." Classical Greeks and Romans were using cannabis, while in the Middle East, use spread throughout the Islamic empire to North Africa. Various forms of the drug cannabis exist, including extracts such as hashish and hash oil Medical cannabis (or medical marijuana) refers to the use of cannabis and its constituent cannabinoids, to treat disease or improve symptoms.In 1545, cannabis spread to the western hemisphere where Spaniards imported it to Chile for its use as fiber. Cannabis is used to reduce nausea and vomiting during chemotherapy, to improve appetite in people with HIV/AIDS, and to treat chronic pain and muscle spasms.However, the serration vein originates from lower down the central vein of the leaflet, typically opposite to the position of, not the first notch down, but the next notch. This has resulted in many reclassifications based on evolutionary systematics. They also commented that these analyses confirm the continuity of the Cannabis gene pool throughout the studied accessions, and provide further confirmation that the genus consists of a single species, although theirs was not a systematic study per se. Hillig, a graduate student in the laboratory of long-time Cannabis researcher Paul G. Another paper in the series on chemotaxonomic variation in the terpenoid content of the essential oil of Cannabis revealed that several wide-leaflet drug strains in the collection had relatively high levels of certain sesquiterpene alcohols, including guaiol and isomers of eudesmol, that set them apart from the other putative taxa. He also concluded there is little support to treat C. sativa at this time, but more research on wild and weedy populations is needed because they were underrepresented in their collection.This means that on its way from the midrib of the leaflet to the point of the serration, the vein serving the tip of the serration passes close by the intervening notch. Several studies of Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and other types of genetic markers have been conducted on drug and fiber strains of Cannabis, primarily for plant breeding and forensic purposes. Mahlberg at Indiana University, conducted a systematic investigation of genetic, morphological, and chemotaxonomic variation among 157 Cannabis accessions of known geographic origin, including fiber, drug, and feral populations. The authors assigned fiber/seed landraces and feral populations from Europe, central Asia, and Asia Minor to C. Narrow-leaflet and wide-leaflet drug accessions, southern and eastern Asian hemp accessions, and feral Himalayan populations were assigned to C. In 2005, Hillig published a genetic analysis of the same set of accessions (this paper was the first in the series, but was delayed in publication), and proposed a three-species classification, recognizing C. Hillig concluded that the patterns of genetic, morphological, and chemotaxonomic variation support recognition of C. In September 2005, New Scientist reported that researchers at the Canberra Institute of Technology had identified a new type of Cannabis based on analysis of mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA.At the top of a flowering plant, this number again diminishes to a single leaflet per leaf. Schultes and coworkers also conducted taxonomic studies of Cannabis in the 1970s, and concluded that stable morphological differences exist that support recognition of at least three species, C. indica is shorter, conical in shape, and has relatively wide leaflets, and C.
Cannabis sativa appears naturally in many tropical and humid parts of the world. After 24 hours to a few days, minuscule psychoactive effects may be felt, depending on dosage, frequency and tolerance to the drug.Linnaeus was familiar with European hemp, which was widely cultivated at the time. Additional Cannabis species were proposed in the 19th century, including strains from China and Vietnam (Indo-China) assigned the names Cannabis chinensis Delile, and Cannabis gigantea Delile ex Vilmorin. ruderalis Janisch, and Cannabis ruderalis Janisch, as alternative names. kafiristanica Vav., and ruderal populations in Europe to C. However, hemp can refer to any industrial or foodstuff product that is not intended for use as a drug.In 1785, noted evolutionary biologist Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck published a description of a second species of Cannabis, which he named Cannabis indica Lam. However, many taxonomists found these putative species difficult to distinguish. In 1929, renowned plant explorer Nikolai Vavilov assigned wild or feral populations of Cannabis in Afghanistan to C. Many countries regulate limits for psychoactive compound (THC) concentrations in products labeled as hemp.Cannabis normally has imperfect flowers, with staminate "male" and pistillate "female" flowers occurring on separate plants. Cannabis plants produce a group of chemicals called cannabinoids, which produce mental and physical effects when consumed. sativa subspecies into 13 varieties, including four distinct groups within subspecies culta. Laws prohibiting Cannabis in the United States and Canada specifically named products of C. Enterprising attorneys for the defense in a few drug busts argued that the seized Cannabis material may not have been C. Attorneys on both sides recruited botanists to provide expert testimony. Ruderalis is the informal name for the short plants that grow wild in Europe and central Asia.Although monoecious plants are often referred to as "hermaphrodites", true hermaphrodites (which are less common) bear staminate and pistillate structures together on individual flowers, whereas monoecious plants bear male and female flowers at different locations on the same plant. Cannabinoids, terpenoids, and other compounds are secreted by glandular trichomes that occur most abundantly on the floral calyxes and bracts of female plants. Breeders, seed companies, and cultivators of drug type Cannabis often describe the ancestry or gross phenotypic characteristics of cultivars by categorizing them as "pure indica", "mostly indica", "indica/sativa", "mostly sativa", or "pure sativa". Cannabis is a popular recreational drug around the world, only behind alcohol, caffeine and tobacco.